In this study, the RAND/UCLA method is used to validate the appropriateness of non-surgical management or minimally invasive procedure selection, the methodology has been proven to produce reliable, consistent and clinically valid results.

The International panel was composed of Interventional Radiologists, Neurosurgeons, Orthopedic Surgeons, and Internal Medicine Physicians.

The panelists selected seven clinical variables that they considered relevant to treatment choice.

By permutation of these clinical variables, they set 192 patient profiles.

First rating round:
Panelists individually assessed the appropriateness of Vertebroplasty, Balloon Kyphoplasty, and non-surgical management for each profile on a 9-point scale.

Second rating round:
After further case selection, panelists adapted the structure, refined the definitions, and excluded unrealistic cases to reach 128 patient profiles.

Research steps: